Berliner, Emile

Berliner, Emile
b. 20 May 1851 Hannover, Germany
d. 3 August 1929 Montreal, Canada
German (naturalized American) inventor, developer of the disc record and lateral mechanical replay.
After arriving in the USA in 1870 and becoming an American citizen, Berliner worked as a dry-goods clerk in Washington, DC, and for a period studied electricity at Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York. He invented an improved microphone and set up his own experimental laboratory in Washington, DC. He developed a microphone for telephone use and sold the rights to the Bell Telephone Company. Subsequently he was put in charge of their laboratory, remaining in that position for eight years. In 1881 Berliner, with his brothers Joseph and Jacob, founded the J.Berliner Telephonfabrik in Hanover, the first factory in Europe specializing in telephone equipment.
Inspired by the development work performed by T.A. Edison and in the Volta Laboratory (see C.S. Tainter), he analysed the existing processes for recording and reproducing sound and in 1887 developed a process for transferring lateral undulations scratched in soot into an etched groove that would make a needle and diaphragm vibrate. Using what may be regarded as a combination of the Phonautograph of Léon Scott de Martinville and the photo-engraving suggested by Charles Cros, in May 1887 he thus demonstrated the practicability of the laterally recorded groove. He termed the apparatus "Gramophone". In November 1887 he applied the principle to a glass disc and obtained an inwardly spiralling, modulated groove in copper and zinc. In March 1888 he took the radical step of scratching the lateral vibrations directly onto a rotating zinc disc, the surface of which was protected, and the subsequent etching created the groove. Using well-known principles of printing-plate manufacture, he developed processes for duplication by making a negative mould from which positive copies could be pressed in a thermoplastic compound. Toy gramophones were manufactured in Germany from 1889 and from 1892–3 Berliner manufactured both records and gramophones in the USA. The gramophones were hand-cranked at first, but from 1896 were based on a new design by E.R. Johnson. In 1897–8 Berliner spread his activities to England and Germany, setting up a European pressing plant in the telephone factory in Hanover, and in 1899 a Canadian company was formed. Various court cases over patents removed Berliner from direct running of the reconstructed companies, but he retained a major economic interest in E.R. Johnson's Victor Talking Machine Company. In later years Berliner became interested in aeronautics, in particular the autogiro principle. Applied acoustics was a continued interest, and a tile for controlling the acoustics of large halls was successfully developed in the 1920s.
16 May 1888, Journal of the Franklin Institute 125 (6) (Lecture of 16 May 1888) (Berliner's early appreciation of his own work).
1914, Three Addresses, privately printed (a history of sound recording). US patent no. 372,786 (basic photo-engraving principle).
US patent no. 382,790 (scratching and etching).
US patent no. 534,543 (hand-cranked gramophone).
Further Reading
R.Gelatt, 1977, The Fabulous Phonograph, London: Cassell (a well-researched history of reproducible sound which places Berliner's contribution in its correct perspective). J.R.Smart, 1985, "Emile Berliner and nineteenth-century disc recordings", in Wonderful
Inventions, ed. Iris Newson, Washington, DC: Library of Congress, pp. 346–59 (provides a reliable account).
O.Read and W.L.Welch, 1959, From Tin Foil to Stereo, Indianapolis: Howard W.Sams, pp. 119–35 (provides a vivid account, albeit with less precision).

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BERLINER, EMILE — (1851–1929), inventor. Born and educated in Wolfenbuettel, Germany, Berliner emigrated to the U.S.A. in 1870. He worked in New York and Washington, D.C., as a clerk, salesman, and assistant in a chemical laboratory. He studied electricity and in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Berliner,Emile — Ber·lin·er (bûrʹlə nər), Emile. 1851 1929. German born American inventor who greatly improved the telephone and invented the gramophone (1887). * * * …   Universalium

  • Berliner, Emile — (1851–1929)    US inventor. Berliner emigrated to the United States from Germany at the age of nineteen and soon showed aptitude in scientific and technological fields. His inventions made possible the long distance use of the telephone and the… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Berliner, Emile — (1851 1929)    American inventor. He emigrated to the US at the age of 19, and showed aptitude in scientific subjects and technological fields. His inventions made possible the long distance use of the telephone and the practical use of the… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Emile Berliner — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Emile Berliner Emile Berliner …   Wikipedia Español

  • Emile Berliner — Émile Berliner Émile Berliner …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Émile Berliner — avec son premier …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Emile Berliner — Emil Berliner Fabrik in Hannover, Kniestraße Emil Berliner (englisch Emile Berliner; * 20. Mai 1851 in Hannover …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Berliner — is most often used to designate a citizen of Berlin, Germany, but may also refer to:* Berliner (pastry) * Berliner (format), in newspapers* Ich bin ein Berliner , a famous speech by John F. Kennedy * Berliner Gramophone, a record labelurname*… …   Wikipedia

  • Emile Schaefer — (* 15. Januar 1971 in Berlin Wilmersdorf) ist ein ehemaliger deutscher Eishockeyspieler, der in seiner aktiven Zeit unter anderem für den EC Bad Nauheim in der 2. Eishockey Bundesliga gespielt hat. Karriere Emile Schaefer begann seine Karriere… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Émile Zola — Émile Zola, Aufnahme Nadar Émile François Zola (* 2. April 1840 in Paris; † 29. September 1902 ebenda) war ein französischer Schriftsteller und Journalist. Zola gilt als einer der großen französischen Romanciers des 19. Jahrhunderts und als… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”